For a normal human being, being anxious is a part of life. The normal human emotion occurs in a period of uncertainty, when faced with a problem, or in the process of making a vital decision.

The body requires anxiety in areas with imminent danger for
survival.

 Anxiety will probably occur when you are starting a new job, doing an interview, seeing a doctor, about to give a speech, or about to face an exam among other instances.

According to the American Psychological
Association (APA) anxiety
can be defined
as “an emotion characterized by feelings of
tension, worried thoughts and physical changes like increased blood
pressure.”

Anxiety disorders on the other hand are a group of mental
illnesses that give people repeated disturbing thoughts or fears.

The intrusive thoughts, fears, or worries sometimes make the person to avoid certain situations. The anxiety disorders because of symptoms such as perspiring, trembling, dizziness, or rapid heartbeat reduce significantly the quality of life. Thus, an anxiety disorder can be disabling.

Treatment of anxiety disorders however helps people suffering from anxiety disorders enabling them to live a fulfilling life. Treatment enables the individual to manage the feelings of fear, worry, and other disturbing thoughts.

Key takeaways

  • What is an anxiety disorder?
  • What are the 6 types of anxiety disorders?
  • How do you diagnose anxiety disorders?
  • What are the treatment options available for anxiety disorders?
  • How can anxiety disorders be prevented?

Types of anxiety disorders

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), our founder David H. Barlow, Ph.D., explained anxiety disorders as an umbrella of different conditions including:

  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
  • Panic Disorder
  • Social Phobia (or Social Anxiety Disorder)
  • Specific phobias
  • Separation Anxiety Disorder
  • Agoraphobia
  • Selective mutism

Initially the two disorders below were part of anxiety disorders but were grouped in other classifications of mental disorders. According to DSM-5, even though they share commonalities with anxiety disorders, they were grouped in different classes of mental disorders.

  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
  • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Of all the
anxiety disorder types above, generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorders
are the most common among the populace in the U.S.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

This is a chronic anxiety disorder (must affect a person for
a period of not less than 6 months) and is characterized by excessive fear or
anxiety feeling on a variety of general events.

The word on the street for people with this disorder is
worrywarts or neurotics. They are always worried that something will happen to
their disadvantage.

To classify someone as having generalized anxiety disorder
requires an assessment that checks for the following anxiety symptoms:

  • Relentless edginess.
  • Having a constant difficulty about paying
    attention or concentrating.
  • Continually feeling tired or fatigued. This also
    includes getting fatigued easily
  • Constantly having muscle tightness
  • Always being restless
  • Constantly having issues with falling asleep or
    staying asleep.

According to APA, an adult must express 3 or more of these symptoms for a period of 6 months or more for generalized anxiety disorder diagnosis.

For generalized anxiety disorder in children, an expression
of one of the symptoms above for a similar period is a clue for diagnosis.

Some of the causes or risk factors of generalized anxiety disorder include tobacco use, genetics, prolonged exposure to traumatizing situations, and childhood abuse.

Panic Disorder

Panic disorder

This is a random extreme feeling of terror or fear. The symptoms of panic disorder are panic attacks which in most anxiety patients come with sweating, trembling, chest pains, a feeling of choking, or irregular heartbeat (palpitations).

Experiences from several people who visited our clinic define the feeling as a heart attack feel. Other symptoms experienced during panic attacks are being nausea, dizziness, and chills.

Emotional function is also affected by feeling as if you are going crazy, fear that you will die, or having someone else’s body and losing control of your body and mind.

For a person to be diagnosed as having panic disorder the
person must have experienced repeated panic attacks and worry associated with
fear of getting another attack lasting for more than a month.

Panic attacks can occur at any time even during sleep.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5) regular panic attacks are indicative of a panic disorder. However, a panic attack does not mean that the individual has a panic disorder.

Panic disorders affect roughly 1.7% of the adults in the U.S. Of note is that women are twice as likely to develop panic disorder as compared to men.

Also, studies appear to show that panic disorder risk increases if any person in your lineage had the condition.

Studies also appear to show that panic disorder may be associated with disorders of the endocrine system, cardiovascular system, or other serious medical conditions. If the underlying issue is diagnosed, management of the condition and treatment of panic disorder should result in a better prognosis.

The studies also show that disorders for example depression
and substance abuse coexist naturally in most people with panic disorders.

Social Phobia (or Social Anxiety Disorder)

Social phobia is a feeling of overwhelming anxiety or worry
or fear concerning social situations. The social situations are situations
where scrutiny is expected.

The anxiety is about being judged, ridiculed, embarrassed, or scrutinized. You will always hear people talking about fearing being left alone with unfamiliar people or people scrutinizing how you eat or how to speak in public. The social anxiety symptoms are similar to those of other disorders as discussed below.

In most people being embarrassed by the people will make
them fixated with fear and thus avoid such situations. If the situation is a
must, it is always done because of extreme pressure.

For persons with social phobia, the brain might even be over judging a situation. In some instances, like on public speaking, a person might see two people in the audience talking and think that they are talking about him/her.

In that instance or in others the actual threat may be very
small but registered as extreme by the individual.

Because every person has a fear of new situations, the level of anxiety must be extreme for a person to be suspected of having social anxiety disorder. The possible causes of social anxiety disorders range from environmental causes, bad parenting to genetic. Environmental causes include abuse, bullying by age-mates, family conflicts, death or losing a parent, maternal stress among others.

The person must also be employing some abnormal behaviors to
try to avoid or cope with the situation.

Specific phobias.

Specific phobias: fear of flying

Phobias are excessive or intense fear about a specific situation or object that is markedly beyond what is appropriate for the actual threat involved.

Specific phobia for example, maybe for situations like height, flying, darkness, insects, and others. Some of the fears are threatening situations or objects like the fear of snakes, spiders, and being in enclosed spaces.

The situation or objects that generate the fear is thus avoided in dysfunctional ways. The behavior of avoiding or coping with fear is always in most individuals accompanied by an excessive fear of a similar situation for a period of not less than 6 months to be defined as a phobia.

Agoraphobia

Agoraphobia is the anxiety about being in situations or a place where fleeing is difficult, uncomfortable, or in cases where if support is required it is unavailable.

The condition is strongly related to panic disorder. This is
because it is mostly caused by the concern about getting a panic attack. People
with agoraphobia can be identified by their constant checking of escape routes
or having to position themselves in an area where they can always see the door
if they are in a room.

The same individual in addition to the fear also has avoidance behaviors. This avoidance behavior causes serious consequences or at times adds to the fear.

Examples of situations which are avoided by people suffering
from agoraphobia include:

  • Using communal transport
  • Boarding a taxi alone
  • staying in enclosed spaces
  • Being in open spaces or in a crowd
  • Standing in a line with other people
  • Being in the house alone or out of the home
    alone.

Agoraphobia is suspected when some of those or other fears
together with the avoidance behaviors manifest for over 6 months. The fear is
disproportionate when checking the dangers posed by the source of the fear.

If the fear and the accompanying behaviors are upsetting and
or interferes with daily activities, then agoraphobia is confirmed. The said
individual will most at time request for a companion in any of the instances
above.

Separation Anxiety Disorder (SepAD)

This disorder is the extreme and inappropriate fear of being separated from a person or place that he/she is attached to. For babies and children, it is normal for them to have separation anxiety. The condition is diagnosed as separation anxiety disorder if the anxiety is excessive or inappropriate.

Separation anxiety disorder affects around 4% of children in
the U.S and 7% of adults with severity being more in children than in adults.

The fear of losing a person or a place where a relationship
has been formed is one of the main symptoms of the disorder. The person may
refuse to leave a person or a place he/she is accustomed to. They may not sleep
or have nightmares when that individual is not around.

The disorder may develop in childhood and persist to
adulthood if not managed. For children, early diagnosis and treatment will
prevent serious problems. One of the ways to treat the condition is to train
the parents on how to resolve the anxiety in their children.

In addition to training the parents, family therapy, and medications can be used to treat the anxiety.

Selective mutism

Selective mutism is a childhood anxiety disorder where a person who has speaking capabilities is unable to speak in certain circumstances or to some people. In most instances the disorder co-exists with social anxiety or being shy. Children with selective autism communicate well to people and in settings where they are comfortable, safe and relaxed.

For the people suffering from selective mutism, silence is maintained even when they are sure that they will be ridiculed, shamed, punished, or socially ostracized. About 0.8% of people suffer from selective mutism at one point in their lives.

For those children, selective mutism symptoms can be quite
devastating and painful. In most instances their social skills are affected.
The extremeness of the mutism varies from child to child with some children
standing paralyzed while others can mute a few words or whisper.

Adults with selective mutism may be unable to speak just
like the children with selective mutism.

In most cases, children inherit selective mutism from someone in their lineage who had anxiety problems. These children from infancy have extreme anxiety tendencies, are moody and shy, throw tantrums often, and have sleeping problems.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is a personality disorder characterized by recurrent obsessive thoughts otherwise called obsessions or performing certain routines or behaviors (compulsions). Compulsions and unwanted thoughts make life unbearable.

According to DSM-5, obsessive-compulsive disorder is not classified as an anxiety disorder but as an obsessive-compulsive and related disorder.

Some of these compulsions include counting, hand washing, cleaning, or checking to see if for example the door is locked and are carried out to try and cope with the unwanted thoughts or to relieve them of the thoughts.

The obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms are associated with the fear of dirt (germs), losing control, religion, sexual explicit thoughts, and lacking in needs.

These repetitive behaviors however offer temporary relief and for individuals suffering from OCD, not performing the so-called “rituals” increases anxiety altogether.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is associated with tics and an
increase in the risk of suicide.

Even though the obsessive-compulsive disorder cause is unknown, genetics and certain infects play a major role in having the disease. In addition, a history of child abuse and exposure to stress-inducing occasions may increase the risk to contract the condition.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Post-traumatic stress disorder; causes, symptoms and treatment

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, PTSD, is a mental health condition that develops after exposure to a terrifying event in which severe physical injury occurred or was threatened. The exposure means that the event may have occurred to you or to someone while you were witnessing.

According to DSM-5 classification of anxiety disorders, PTSD is classified under the trauma and stressor-related disorders

Some of the events that may trigger post-traumatic stress disorder include violent personal assaults, disasters either natural or mad made, military battle, and accidents.

The most common post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms
include nightmares, flashbacks, and terrible anxiety while also having repeated
thoughts about the event.

All these symptoms can be grouped into avoidance, intrusive
memories, having foul moods and thoughts, and having variations in emotional
and physical reactions.

These PTSD symptoms may start within a month of exposure to
the devastating event but in some instances, they may start years after the
exposure.

The symptoms of PTSD cause major problems at work, with
family or any other social situation. In most instances a person suffering from
post-traumatic stress disorder may have problems in performing the daily tasks.

Most people who are exposed to traumatic events may feel unable to adjust or cope momentarily. However, with time and self-care, the individuals heal.

Those who are unable to heal thus developing PTSD may
require effective treatment to enable them to cope and improve the day to day
functioning.

Anxiety disorder Symptoms

Symptoms of anxiety disorders

How do I know if I suffer from an anxiety disorder? It
all starts with checking the anxiety disorder symptoms.

Almost all the anxiety disorders manifest with some common symptoms. Adults must have at least 2 of these anxiety symptoms running for a period for an anxiety disorder to be suspected. These symptoms include:

  • Panic, fear, and uneasiness
  • Sleep problems
  • Memory problems
  • Irritability and inability to stay calm and still (restlessness)
  • Cold, sweaty, numb or tingling hands or feet
  • Shortness of breath and anxiety chest pain
  • Heart palpitations
  • Dry mouth
  • Nausea
  • Tense muscles and getting fatigued easily
  • Dizziness, or faintness
  • Feeling of detachment

In most
cases, a person suffering from an attack thinks that they are suffering a heart
attack. These symptoms may be associated with other medical conditions and thus
it would be nice to see a doctor.

Most of the anxiety
disorder signs above are symptoms of a panic attack which is “an unexpected
occurrence of forceful and devastating worry and terror that activates a severe
physical response in instances of minimal or no real danger or apparent cause.”

A panic attack lasts for a short duration of time with 10-15 minutes of intense symptoms and may be one of the indications of an anxiety disorder. A panic attack may be followed by periods of intense fear which leads to reduced quality of life.

How long does an anxiety attack last?

An anxiety attack is a prolonged period of intense anxiety
symptoms. It is different from a feeling of anxiety in that it is more intense
and prolonged but not as debilitating as a panic attack.

An anxiety attack can last for a period of minutes or hours
but in some situations, it can last for days or weeks. An anxiety attack has
the following symptoms:

  • Difficulty in controlling worry, panic, fear, and uneasiness
  • Memory problems and difficulty in concentrating
  • Irritability and inability to stay calm and still (restlessness)
  • Having difficulty getting sleep, staying asleep or getting enough satisfying sleep
  • Tense muscles and being fatigued easily

An anxiety
attack may not imply that you have an anxiety disorder unlike a panic attack.
This is because it is merely a period of intense anxiety. Since anxiety is
normal, an anxiety attack may be an indication of intense emotion or may point
to an anxiety disorder.

A panic attack on the other hand is a sign that you may have an anxiety disorder. The panic attack is an intense and debilitating occurrence of intense anxiety symptoms which last for 20 to 30 minutes. The panic attack signs and symptoms develop abruptly and peak within 10 minutes. Of note is that a panic attack can happen anytime and anywhere.

Anxiety
disorder in children

Anxiety disorder in children

Children always experience anxieties over a number of events, people, and the environment. Anxiety in children is common and should not be deduced to be an anxiety disorder.

Children however have been seen to suffer from almost all the above anxiety disorder types. The children can suffer from generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, selective mutism, specific phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder.

It is always good to detect the symptoms of anxiety disorder
in your child early and see a doctor for diagnosis and treatment. The different
anxiety disorders in children present with different symptoms but mostly are
followed by a period of intense fear.

A child with an anxiety disorder will have difficulties in concentrating, will live every day with fear, and will feel like they are losing control. The anxiety disorder in children is treatable by the treatment methods available. However, these children require a lot of support from family and friends.

Anxiety
disorder Causes

Results from various researches have not conclusively pinpointed what causes anxiety disorders to develop. The information available however show a relationship between all anxiety disorders and some diseases, environmental stress, changes in the brain, and genetics.

These anxiety causes are classified as follows:

  • Environmental stress: Anxiety can be increased by environmental factors. Stress at work, from school, in personal relationships, finances, and emotional trauma like the death of a close friend or relative contribute markedly to developing an anxiety disorder. These stresses also include low oxygen levels especially at high altitudes.
  • Genetics: A person whose family members have suffered from anxiety disorder are more at risk of developing an anxiety disorder. In 2015, a study explored mental illnesses and concluded that the RBFOX1 gene increases the risk of developing generalized anxiety disorder. GAD is a heritable condition with a moderate genetic risk according to a more recent study conducted in 2017. Additional studies in 2016 concluded that panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder are linked to the genetic make-up of our bodies.
  • Withdrawal or use of an illicit drug like cocaine: A combination of the stress-causing daily activities discussed above when combined with the use or withdrawal from an illicit substance may contribute markedly to developing an anxiety disorder.
  • Medical factors: Some ailments can increase the risk of anxiety disorder in addition to the side effects of medications taken. In addition, stress from a serious illness may trigger an anxiety disorder. Ailments having symptoms like chronic pain and restricted movement may be what causes anxiety disorders to develop.
  • Brain Chemistry: Exposure to a very stressful and traumatic events can alter the brain function and structure to cause increased susceptibility to anxiety. With the change in the brain chemistry, individuals get anxiety from circumstances which in normal persons do not cause anxiety. The disruption of hormonal balance and electrical signals in the nervous system is how many neurologists and psychologists define anxiety and mood disorders.

Diagnosis

The first pointer for diagnosis of any anxiety disorder is having symptoms of anxiety disorder that have been regular for a period of time. The Doctor will always check your medical history.

After the medical history, the doctor will examine you to rule out other medical conditions that may present with the same symptoms. This may involve blood, urine, or other tests to check for a medical condition. It should be noted that there are no specific laboratory tests to diagnose anxiety disorders.

A psychologist or
psychiatrist may be consulted once the doctor has ruled out the other possible
medical conditions. These mental health specialists use a questionnaire to
check and analyze the symptoms and medical history.

The answers from the
questionnaire combined with some tests and using tools will help to narrow down
on the anxiety disorder you are suffering from. The longer the period in which
the symptoms have been manifesting are very important in the diagnosis.

All anxiety disorders affect the quality of life and interfere with day to day activities. The doctor will also analyze the impact of the symptoms on your daily life.

Finally, doctors
employ the anxiety disorder diagnostic criteria listed in the Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as
published by APA (American Psychiatric Association).

Treatment of Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety disorders are treated using one or a combination of
the following methods:

  • Medication
  • Psychotherapy
  • Self-treatment (managing Symptoms)

Before getting the anxiety disorder treatment option, or
choosing a doctor for anxiety disorder it is important to consider the
following factors:

  • Training and experience of the doctor on managing anxiety disorders
  • Discuss with your family about the needs of the treatment and ensure they are comfortable with it
  • Analyze the treatment type and format to understand the nitty-gritty details of the treatment. These include how long does it take to act, course, length, frequency, procedures, and potential effects of the treatment.
  • Check on the treatment costs and if they are covered by your insurance provider.
  • Find out if you are comfortable and confident with the doctor performing your treatment course.
  • Check if your doctor will be comfortable in communicating freely with your family doctor. This enables one to have checks by a person who knows you better.

In most anxiety disorders the following are the most
commonly used therapies. Kindly note that the doctor may prescribe one or more
of the following anxiety remedies:

Medication for anxiety disorders

Anxiety disorders treatment: Fast acting and long acting medication for anxiety attacks

There are three main types of medications prescribed to treat anxiety disorders; antidepressants, anxiolytics (anti-anxiety drugs), and beta-blockers. The medication used may depend on the type of anxiety disorder.

Both anxiolytics and antidepressants target the balance of neurotransmitters (chemicals in the brain that are used to pass messages around). Therefore, Antidepressants can be used to treat both depression and anxiety.

Beta-blockers, first-generation antihistamines and other drugs target the physical symptoms associated with the anxiety disorder.

In anxiety disorders, the best treatment is as recommended
by the doctor after several deliberations.

Antidepressants

Since
several neurotransmitters are involved in both normal and anxiety disorders,
targeting them plays a huge role in anxiety management. To target these
neurotransmitters the following drugs for anxiety are used:

  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs): These antidepressants are used mainly as the first-line treatment for anxiety. They include fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), citalopram (Celexa), escitalopram (Lexapro), fluvoxamine (Luvox), paroxetine (Paxil), and vilazodone (Viibryd).

The SSRIs are the first line in the treatment of panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, general anxiety disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder.

  • Serotonin–Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs): This class of antidepressants inhibits both serotonin and norepinephrine transporters. They include venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine (Pristiq), and duloxetine.  Milnacipran (Savella) is not recommended for anxiety but for fibromyalgia even though it is an SNRI. They are the second-line treatment for anxiety thus are used when there is a treatment failure or insufficient response to SSRIs.

These drugs are very effective in
the treatment of panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety
disorder, general anxiety disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder.

  • Benzodiazepines:
    These medications were previously used as the first line for treatment of
    anxiety but not anymore. This is because chronic use of benzodiazepines has so
    many risks.

The anxiolytic works by boosting the action
of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA),
a neurotransmitter.

They are one of the most prescribed anxiolytics though. For acute anxiety though, they are very effective but long-term use or high doses increases dependence and withdrawal symptoms. Other symptoms of note include reduced reasoning and coordination, and the potential danger of death if mixed with opioids or alcohol. Benzodiazepines include alprazolam (Xanax XR), diazepam, flurazepam, Lorazepam, Oxazepam, clorazepate, clonazepam, midazolam, triazolam, and temazepam. These drugs are prescribed majorly for generalized anxiety disorders and panic attacks.

  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). MAOIsinhibits the effects of a brain enzyme called monoamine oxidase, whose action is to metabolize neurotransmitters like serotonin. This inhibition ensures more serotonin is circulating thus calming moods and reducing anxiety. They are prescribed mainly for panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder.

For those cases of anxiety, Monoamine oxidase inhibitors are prescribed where SSRIs are not effective. One of the main reasons for this is because MAOIs have interactions with foods and a number of drugs. phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Parnate), isocarboxazid (Marplan), and selegiline (Emsam).

  • Tricyclic
    Antidepressants (TCAs
    ): All tricyclic antidepressants are norepinephrine
    reuptake inhibitors while most of them also facilitate serotonin reupdate
    inhibition. The TCAs have far more adverse reactions as compared to SSRIs and
    SNRIs even though their efficacy is comparable. TCAs are also deadly in case of
    an overdose.

Due to the adverse reaction and the lethal nature of overdose, TCAs are rarely used to treat anxiety disorders. However, for patients with OCD, clomipramine (Anafranil) is potentially more efficacious than SSRIs and SNRIs. They are used to treat panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and general anxiety disorder in the few cases where they are used.

  • Tetracyclic
    antidepressants:
    The tetracyclic antidepressants regulate the levels of
    neurotransmitters in the brain. Their mode of action is almost similar to the
    tricyclic antidepressants but have fewer side effects.

The antidepressant is useful in treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and other anxiety disorders though on an “off-label” model.

Some of the commonly used tetracyclic antidepressants include Mirtazapine (Remeron), maprotiline (Ludiomil).

Anticonvulsants:

Anticonvulsants/ antiepileptic drugs/ antiseizure medications have been put more into use due to the potential side effects of benzodiazepines. These antiepileptic drugs were in the past used as mood stabilizers in mood disorders. These days, however, they are used as anxiolytics. These drugs are mainly used in an off-label fashion for the treatment of anxiety. Examples include gabapentin (Neurontin), Pregabalin (Lyrica), topiramate (Topamax), Lamotrigine (Lamictal), and valproate (Depacon). These drugs are taken in low doses since higher doses lead to similar side effects to benzodiazepines.

Alpha blockers:

These are drugs that prevent the hormone norepinephrine from constricting the muscles in the body. Alpha-blockers are not primarily prescribed for most anxiety disorders except post-traumatic stress disorder. They generally prevent nightmares.

Alpha-blockers are normally used for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and high blood pressure. Examples of Alpha-blockers are Doxazosin (Cardura), Prazosin (Minipress) and Terazosin

Beta blockers:

This class of medication is also known as beta-adrenergic blocking agents. They function by hindering the effects of adrenaline (epinephrine). This results in the opening of arteries and veins, in addition to allowing the heart to beat more slowly and with reduced force. They treat performance anxiety disorder and panic disorder.

Examples of beta-blockers are propranolol (Inderal), Acebutolol (Sectral), Atenolol (Tenormin), Bisoprolol (Zebeta), Metoprolol (Lopressor), Nadolol (Corgard), Nebivolol (Bystolic). Propranolol is the most commonly used beta-blocker for anxiety disorders.

How long do beta-blockers take to work for anxiety?  Beta-blockers like propranolol will start acting in your body almost immediately after swallowing them but the full effects on anxiety will be felt within an hour or two. During that time, they will work to reduce the heart rate and give you a calm, relaxed feeling. Doctors examine your symptoms and determine if the beta-blockers will be taken just before a stressful event or on a regular basis.

Buspirone

Buspirone mechanism of action is not well known even though
it acts on the chemicals in the brain. These chemicals serotonin and dopamine. This
anxiety drug belongs to the class of compounds called azaspirodecanedione.

It does not sedate the user unlike benzodiazepines.

Buspirone is very effective in treating anxiety disorders including generalized anxiety treatment. The anxiolytic works on the following anxiety symptoms:

  • Fear
  • Tension
  • irritability,
  • dizziness
  • pounding heartbeat

The side effects of buspirone include vertigo, nausea,
headache, edginess, lightheadedness, excitement, and insomnia.

Additional Medications

First-generation antihistamines are sometimes prescribed for GAD. Examples of the antihistamines Hydroxyzine (Atarax), diphenhydramine. The medication is mainly used for allergies, insomnia, coughing, Parkinson disease, and motion sickness. However, some of the properties of the drug are useful for anxiety.

GABA for anxiety: are supplements containing the hormone Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), recommended for anxiety, sleep, and stress.

Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy is a type of counseling that helps to resolve the emotional response to mental illness rather than using anxiety drugs. The collaborative process is carried out by a mental health specialist who discusses with you on how to deal with anxiety disorder.

The patient is supposed to practice the learned anxiety coping skills and techniques away from the therapy session to deal with anxiety.

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)

CBT is one of the approaches used to treat anxiety. CBT, psychotherapy, helps a patient to understand and alter their (cognitions)/ thoughts and behaviors that start a panic or nervousness. The commonly used CBT methods are exposure and cognitive therapy.

In addition to cognitive behavioral therapy, psychologists
apply group psychotherapy and family psychotherapy to help the patient deal
with anxiety. The two enables you to get help from a group of individuals
suffering from anxiety disorders or from family members.

CBT is very effective and efficacious in all anxiety
disorders treatment. It improves the quality of life for most of the anxiety
disorders in addition to other mental illnesses.

CBT can either be diagnostic-specific CBT (the current gold standard) or transdiagnostic CBT. Recent studies have shown that both are effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

While being compared to diagnostic-specific CBT,
Transdiagnostic CBT is easier to disseminate thus increasing access to
evidence-based therapy for anxiety disorders and other mental disorders without
reducing efficacy.

Transdiagnostic Treatment of Anxiety Disorders, depression and other disorders

What is the transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders? They are revolutionary treatment methods that focus on the theoretical and practical commonalities of different disorders to treat emotional disorders and other related disorders. Some of the disorders treated by the use of transdiagnostic treatment include anxiety disorders, depression, eating disorders, and other related disorders.

According to recent studies, different psychiatric disorders
have similar fundamental underlying susceptibilities. Because of this,
currently there has been developed of transdiagnostic treatment to focus on the
underlying susceptibilities of different disorders.

Some of the core features and susceptibilities of anxiety
disorders are targeted by transdiagnostic treatment include:

  • Anxiety signals and triggers (e.g. situational,
    perceptive, and interoceptive signals or cues)
  • Perceptive or mental processes and biases (e.g.,
    intolerance of uncertainty)
  • Avoidance behaviors (e.g., situational,
    interoceptive, cognitive, and emotional avoidance)
  • Physical signs and symptoms, and amplified
    arousal
  • Compulsions/ impulses and safety behaviors
  • Skills and competencies deficits

Each of the 5 core features have a detailed diagnosis and
treatment plan which is done in modules to ensure the prognosis is good.

This approach is different to single-diagnosis protocol where the focus is on one disorder only. The Transdiagnostic approach has improved the treatment prognosis of different emotional disorders.

The making of
transdiagnostic treatment can happen through three (3) separate methods giving rise
to three clear categories:

  • Modular/common
    elements
  • Universally
    applied therapeutic
  • Mechanistically
    transdiagnostic

For anxiety, transdiagnostic treatment like the cognitive therapy, MATCH, CETA, and Unified Protocol (UP) are very successful in treating all anxiety disorders including PTSD. Transdiagnostic treatment methods are also effective in other mental disorders too.

One of the strengths of transdiagnostic treatment is that it can be used in clinics with limited resources. This is because it can be effectively disseminated and thus easily accessed.

To get more insights on the Unified Protocol and anxiety disorders kindly get our founder’s books on Amazon.

How to Manage Anxiety Disorder Symptoms/ home remedy

There are several life-hacks that can be employed in anxiety
management. The life-hacks work in relieving the symptoms and improve the
quality of life. These methods can be used for anxiety treatment at home.

Most of the tips try and make you look at life positively. The tips to manage the symptoms include:

Learn relaxation techniques: It is always great to take time out and acquire some skills to help you relax. These include meditation, yoga, listening to your favorite music, get a massage. The skills help to clear your brain from negative thoughts that can lead to anxiety. Some of these techniques can be read from anxiety books.

Minimize the use of
alcohol and caffeine
: Alcohol and caffeine can worsen anxiety attacks or
even trigger them. Caffeine alters the moods and thus it is good to avoid
taking coffee, tea, energy drinks, cola sodas and chocolate.

Get enough sleep:
In most anxiety disorders, getting enough quality sleep is always a problem. To
get enough sleep there are laid down procedures that can help a person with
anxiety to get a good enough sleep.

These procedures include having a bedtime routine, exercising before sleep, avoiding blue light-emitting devices just before bed, eating at least 2 hours before sleep, and others.

It should be noted that when you are stressed, the body needs enough sleep to regenerate and heal. For most people, weighted blankets can manage the anxiety.

Exercise daily: Exercise helps to regulate the brain chemicals in your body thus reducing stress. Exercise is also important for a good night sleep especially when anxious. Exercises like jogging, biking, and running are very helpful in stressful situations.

Always eat a balanced
diet
: Having a balanced diet helps to maintain the energy levels and body
shape in times of stress and anxiety. These helps to reduce instances of
hypoglycemia which can trigger anxiety attacks. Kindly make sure that you do
not skip meals and have a healthy snack available all the time.

Talk about the
anxiety
: “A problem shared is a problem halved.” This applies even to
anxiety disorders. Talking to family, colleagues and even a doctor will help in
times when you feel overwhelmed.

Learn more about your anxiety: Learning about your anxiety disorder can help to prevent exposure to triggers or manage the symptoms when an anxiety attack happens. Learning about the anxiety may involve recording instances when the attacks happen, what was happening at the time, who was present, and the results. After some time, a pattern may emerge which can be discussed with others or researched from psychology materials.

There are several anxiety books that can help in understanding the anxiety and give you practical solutions to prevent or manage the anxiety. Some people also use audio messages and games to get more accustomed to anxiety.

Do something: Anxiety
may happen when you have nothing to do and have time to think and overthink. To
mitigate against this, it is advisable for you to work or be active wherever
you are. This may even include volunteering.

Do not take anxiety
medications before consulting
: Even though there are enough materials to
read about anxiety disorders, it is always right to talk to a doctor or a
pharmacist before taking any medication.

The meds may include both over-the Counter (OTC) medication,
herbal medication or prescription medication. This is because some drugs may
counteract with others or even some may worsen your anxiety.

Be proud of yourself: Most of the people beat themselves up when they don’t achieve perfection. This may be one of the main triggers of your anxiety. It is good to be proud of your achievements at school, at work, or even at home.

Laugh: Humor and
laughter helps to relieve stress and anxiety symptoms. This is because laughter
enables the brain to regulate the neurotransmitters thus improving the mood.

Practice stress
management techniques:
Stress management techniques help to alleviate
anxiety symptoms. Some of the management techniques include taking deep breaths
and counting to 10. It is important to take deep breaths during an anxiety
attack.

This process should involve deep breaths and breathing out
slowly. This improves blood flow thus helping the moods. Counting helps to calm
the brain down. If counting to 10 does not help, try counting up to 20.

Accept that stress may not be bad as you envisage: To help in anxious moments, it is good to know that no-one has control over everything. Thus, as much anxious as you are, note that the stressing situation might not be as bad as you think. Try not to overreact or overthink situations.

Limit social media

Alternative treatment methods

Acupuncture for
anxiety disorders
: Acupuncture is an ancient treatment for several medical
conditions where sterile needles are inserted into pressure points in the body.
It is gaining ground in the treatment for anxiety. According to research,
acupuncture helps to relieve some of the symptoms of anxiety.

According to some research acupuncture start giving relief
for generalized anxiety disorder symptoms within 10 weeks. This applies when
you get a 30 minutes acupuncture session 10 times within the period. The
studies however are not very conclusive on how acupuncture helps to relieve the
symptoms and also is not so clear for other anxiety disorders.

Acupuncture comes with its own side effects like soreness of
the pricked area but that can be mitigated if a qualified acupuncturist is
used. It is not recommended for people with bleeding problems of people using a
pacemaker.

Use of toys and games: New and innovative techniques for anxiety relief are coming up every day. Games like CBT games have been developed to help the children deal with anxiety disorders. Other toys like fidget toys can also help in anxiety for children and adults.

Anxiety in children can be stressful to the child or the parents and thus having toys and games that can help in anxiety can greatly improve the quality of life.

Use of anxiety supplements

Complications of anxiety disorders

An anxiety disorder may do a lot more damage to your social
life, mental health and physical health. It may lead to the following
complications:

  • Depression. Anxiety disorders may lead to the
    development of stress or exacerbate existing depression or any other mental
    disorder.
  • Drug and substance abuse: People with anxiety
    disorder may seek refuge in drugs and substances leading sometimes to
    addictions.
  • Insomnia: Sleep problems and anxiety disorders
    go hand in hand. The constant worry does a lot in making sleep to disappear.
  • Gastrointestinal or bowel problems: Constant
    worrying is one of the major causes of ulcers and hyperacidity.
  • Chronic pain including headaches
  • Loneliness or social separation
  • Poor performance in school or at work
  • Diminished quality of life
  • Having suicidal thought or even committing suicide

 Summary of Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety disorders are very common mental illnesses affecting
18.1% of the United States adult population every year. This translates to
around 40 million Americans affected every year.

 The disorders even
though treatable, are not treated for over 60% of the cases leading to poor
quality of lives. The disorders majorly share symptoms and treatment regimes.

Anxiety disorders treatment enables you to manage the symptoms and also to live your life to the fullest. The treatment options available for anxiety disorders are either medications, Psychotherapy, or management of symptoms.

According to David H. Barlows, using transdiagnostic treatment approaches like the unified protocol offers advantages for both the clinician and patient.

The treatment options can be used separately but mostly are used together for better results as prescribed by doctors.